Why is an effort to establish communism not desirable? What were Marx's ideals and how were they reflected in the practice of socialism? In the first part, we look at what it is work in Karl Marx's view, what role freedom plays in Marxism and what communism actually solves.
Until 1989, our republic experienced forty years of the so-called dictatorship, the aim of which was originally to establish communism in society. Communist ideals appeared as early as the 19th century and even earlier. But he became their first real pioneer Karl Marx, who criticized capitalism, created a new perspective on society and history, and in 1848, together with his colleague Bedřich Engels, wrote the Manifesto of Communism. He was named after a direction that was allegedly based on his ideas - the so-called Marxism and later Marxism-Leninism. But to what extent did Marxism be based on of the original communism? What should the path to its realization look like and what did it really look like? And what can he take from all this the youngest generationwhich has so far experienced only a democratic regime, but on which the future depends?
Marx and his ideas about society
One of the basic concepts of communist theory, and as we all know, also of socialist propaganda, was work. Communism often prevails among the people misconceptionthat it is a non-free regime, where everything is controlled and managed by the state to the smallest detail, citizens are guarded by the state police and all human awareness is limited to materialistic values.
But communism as an ideology must not be confused with Marxism-Leninismwhich was created demagogic interpretation bold ideas of Karl Marx. He created a theory perfectly free arrangementwhen state intervention is not necessary, because man is in this arrangement mentally at such a level that rules are not needed. I emphasize again that this arrangement should have been freely!
The basic pillar of communism is the joint ownership not only of property but also freedom. Because external and internal freedom differ in nature - man's external freedom ends where the other's freedom begins - its common ownership is possible only if the interests of all owners go in exactly the same direction, that is, through communist ideals. It also depends on how we understand the word "own". Part of Marx's theory was the difference between "having" and "owning."
Marx criticizes that money becomes a major human need, he criticizes their domination. In a capitalist order, money is the only thing that allows one to live. We can hardly imagine what it would be like if our company was not ruled by money.
But Marx wants to cancel the human need to "have". Because when capitalist man focuses only on "having" something, mostly through money, he becomes a slave to earning it. He no longer creates, he does not realize himself in his work, his work is not creative, he has no meaning, he is alienated, he does not live. Here is the difference between have a own - private property tells us that the object is ours only when we have it physically, we use it immediately and we can dispose of it at our discretion. According to Marx, the work is:
"… Above all, the process taking place between man and nature, the process in which man, through his own activity, mediates, regulates and controls the exchange of substances between himself and nature. Man opposes natural matter itself as a force of nature. In order to appropriate a natural substance in a form suitable for his own life, he sets in motion the natural forces that belong to his body. This also changes their own nature. It develops the abilities that linger in it and subjects the play of these forces to its own power. "
If I "appropriate" something, I form a relationship to it - I "own" this substance so that I can transform it into my image, which does not mean that it must be part of my private property.
I think it is very important to understand communism it does not solve the problems of material life, but through the material situation it solves deeper values. According to Marx, human consciousness is determined by human existence. This means that deeper thinking and worldviews are directly derived from the economic situation. First we solve external problems that limit us, only on this basis do we form our own consciousness.
The communist solution aims to restore the original human value work and thus to restore the value of the man-worker himself. According to the manifesto, the workers are simply to return ownership of their work. Marx claims that through work one presents oneself. Man is what his job is. Work can (and should) please a person. This value is lost to the worker, alienated. Even today, it is difficult to realize the value of our own work, instead we often think more about how much money our efforts will bring us. If I make an object myself, which I am going to use further, a part of my personality is reflected in this object. The work as such should not be different from the creation of a work of art. If a person becomes exploited through his work and the right to his property work the owner of a large manufacturing company makes himself, he also indirectly makes a right to own this person (let us understand again in the context of private ownership - the worker becomes a tool). This worker then becomes a slave, as he has no choice but to accept such a situation. This is a problem that communism is trying to solve.